Friday, March 20, 2020

Intelligence and Creativity Guarantee Nothing †Philosophy Essay

Intelligence and Creativity Guarantee Nothing – Philosophy Essay Free Online Research Papers Intelligence and Creativity Guarantee Nothing Philosophy Essay One of the realities of human society is that crude intelligence and creativity do not guarantee success. On the other hand, persistence on a certain matter does, as the long fight of women’s rights activists demonstrates. In addition, continuous effort to better one’s self is crucial, as the experience of talented authors like Jane Austen, whose works are products of revising and polishing, show. First of all, the prolonged plight of women’s rights activists clearly suggests that, in order to achieve success, one requires primarily insistence and patience. The cause benefited from the assistance of many intelligent and sophisticated women, but no insightful newspaper article or well-crafted slogan could bring about such a groundbreaking change in society. Conversely, progress was made over time, as the public opinion needed to be re-educated, to be taught to put their entrenched prejudices to the test of reason. Therefore, it was not the spark of genius that the cause needed, but persistence. Or, as Thomas Edison puts it, 10% inspiration and 90% perspiration. Another example of the need for effort to polish talent, much like an uncut diamond requires a lot of attention to show its full brilliance, is the renowned writer Jane Austen. A variant of her most famous novel, â€Å"Sense and Sensibility†, was given to editors in 1797. But the then â€Å"First Impressions† was not commendable/satisfactory yet, and Jane Austen knew it, so that the universal rejection did not surprise her. However, the writer came back to her novel in 1811, and the revised â€Å"Sense and Sensibility† was now good enough to become a favorite. Consequently, even if the dedication of suffragettes and the talent of a great author like Jane Austen is undisputed, success is not certain. It can be concluded that success does indeed require a spark of genius, but the massive contribution of effort is undisputed. Research Papers on Intelligence and Creativity Guarantee Nothing - Philosophy EssayThe Fifth HorsemanResearch Process Part OnePETSTEL analysis of IndiaHip-Hop is ArtWhere Wild and West MeetMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesRelationship between Media Coverage and Social and

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

How To Become a Straight-A Student Without Struggling Too Much

How To Become a Straight-A Student Without Struggling Too Much How to become a straight-A student? How to effectively manage time and succeed in studying without being chained to a library? A lot of students ask these questions. However, not many of them actually manage to not only find answers but also transfer knowledge from theory to practice. High grades open many doors and provide great opportunities. Getting straight As is all about hard work, discipline, and perseverance. But there are some lifehacks that will help you to improve your studying process on your way to higher grades. Check out the best tips on how to score high while studying and maintain your social life we gathered for you. Manage Your Time The most effective way to start getting higher scores is organizing your studying process. Scheduling your time may seem tough at first, but it will definitely pay off. The first thing you need to understand is that quality matters more than quantity. Thats why being focused while studying is the key to save time and get better results. Set up a rule to turn off your TV, phone and exclude any other distracting factors when studying. Seems too boring? Maybe. But you will notice, that time you spend on one assignment will be drastically reduced because of this simple but effective practice. The Pareto Principle Youve probably heard about â€Å"80/20† rule or the Pareto principle. It states that 80% of effects come from 20% of causes. How can you use this rule in your time management? Basically, keep focused and devoted while studying instead of distracting on entertainments. Studying without distractions for one hour equals 3 hours of studying with side activities. It will increase your productivity during studying time and help you reach better results while spending less time. Get Organized with Online Tools There are a bunch of online tools and applications for organizing your studying process in high school or college. For example, there are many apps which allow you to use online schedules and notes, folders, journals, and stickers. It seems like an unnecessary waste of money, but they actually help. Design your own sorting system that will be suitable and convenient to use. Keep all your lecture notes in one folder and all of your assignments in another folder. Keep track of the due dates and mark them in your calendar – digital or daily planner. This way, you will be able to see the amount of work and deadlines which will help you to manage your time. Check your planner every day and make notes if needed. Setting goals or mini tasks for a day and check daily accomplishments in the evening is also a powerful tactic. Tips from a real straight-A student: Dont forget to set reminders at your desktop for the most urgent tasks. This way, you can focus on the assignments with upcoming deadlines and effectively manage your time. Form a Group to Study Together One of the most typical study techniques is studying in a group. Facing difficulties while doing your homework is not a rare thing. Thats why its great to have someone who can explain you something you havent caught in class. Solving occurred troubles is much easier when you have someone to hold your back. Studying in a group is very helpful for unorganized students. It helps to: overcome laziness boost motivation get good grades get in the right mood for a study session Gather your classmates for doing homework together. You can meet at someones home or a cafà ©, online chat or video call. The best ideas usually reveal in discussions. Take into consideration: Studying in groups is not for anyone. You should try this method to make your own opinion about it. Some students feel their productivity decreases in a group, and its easier for them to focus when theyre alone. Find out if you are one of them. Dont Let Studying Stress You Out Many students face this common trouble – stress. It causes health problems and makes studying even harder. If you want to succeed and become the top of the class, its essential not to let stress manage your life. Coping with anxiety is not the easiest thing to do, especially during the end of semester and finals. Thats why we prepared some tips for reducing stress while studying or taking exams. Alternate Studying and Rest Common and still ignored advice is having an 8-hour sleep. Its crucial for your body and brain to have rest after a productive day and intense mental work. Many students prefer to party and sleep from 4 to 5 hours, which leads to poor productivity, reduced focus, and sleepiness. Moreover, it also leads to weakening of the immune system, and one feels sick all the time. This isnt the best way to become a top student, right? Have a good rest and let your brain rest too. The relaxation techniques you should try are: yoga and meditation massage listening to calming music aromatherapy As long as you keep your body healthy and your brain clear and sharp– you can succeed and focus on your studying. Stop Procrastinating Do you tend to postpone writing an essay or exam preparation? This makes things even it worse. Being in a rush because of upcoming deadlines causes much more stress and anxiety. Thats why keeping your assignments piling up is not the best decision. Solution: Try to complete one small task every day and break large assignments into small pieces and complete them one-by-one. You will see how profitable it is to understand that you have a lot of time ahead till your due date and half-done work already. Plan beforehand and track all of your incomplete tasks to make sure you dont miss any critical date or assignment. After you adopt these study habits, you will see that stress goes away. 3 Ps You might have heard about Cal Newport and his blog with brilliant tips for better studying. He successfully wrote book series about his career and student life, which you can deservedly add to your motivational books list. One of his brilliant tips is the 3 P approach which you should use when feeling like your brain took a vacation during quizzes and exams. It helps to keep away from anxiety and includes three steps: Planning Proceeding Proofreading Planning The first thing you do when you receive your tasks is flipping through them. Make a quick plan of answering order, starting with easier questions. Plan your time and make quick notes of the key points of your answers. Proceeding The next step is proceeding answering questions starting with the easiest ones. This way, you will reduce the pressure and manage your time wisely, leaving enough time to think on other subjects. It also helps to clear your head and find the right answer. Proofreading The last step is proofreading, and it takes about ten minutes. Correct any mistakes and attentively reread your answers. Wrapping Up Sleep well, manage your time and keep your head up. Dont forget that high grades are not the main thing in your life. Keeping a balance in your life is essential. Consider that knowledge you get is much more important than your grades. Dont sacrifice your social communication and health in order to get straight As.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Support same-sex marriage or not support Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Support same-sex marriage or not support - Essay Example Interestingly, both sides have yielded substantively convincing reasons and justifications for their varied opinions and standpoints on this topic. This paper aims at making a comparison of two opposing editorials on the issue of gay marriages. The first article to consider is entitled: â€Å"Legalizing gay marriage would undermine Christian view of family, claims leading Catholic archbishop† written by Mario Ledwith, and it appeared in the Daily Mail on the 30th of December last year. The Daily Mail is a reputable daily British newspaper that enjoys the fourth largest circulation of about two million copies daily; since the year 1992, Daily Mail has been edited by Paul Dacre. According to this article, Archbishop Bernard Longley of the Birmingham Roman Catholic posits that if gay marriages are legalized, the conventional Christian perspective of family and the whole marriage institution will be undermined (Ledwith). Archbishop Bernard Longley further argues that every child deserves to be loved by two parents, both mother and father; no single child should be denied this incredible opportunity to experience the love of both parents. This is a justifiable reason for the church to remain opposed to the idea of gay ma rriages, despite the increasing popular opinions in support of the same. Marriage as a divinely willed institution must be respected and upheld as a heterosexual union of man and woman. Any attempts at reversing this divine order distort the truth, and this negatively influences individuals and the society at large. The second article that will be considered in this paper , â€Å"Gay marriage bill right thing to do, say Tory heavyweights in appeal to MPs† that appeared in The Guardian, on the 5th of February 2013, which has been co-authored by Nicholas Watt and James Maikle. The Guardian is a reputable daily British newspaper that is edited by Alan Rusbridger; and it enjoys a national presence, with a steady daily

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Supermax Prisons Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Supermax Prisons - Essay Example The first feature of a control unit prison is that prisoners are kept in solitary confinement in tiny cells and they do not have the privilege of congregate dining, exercise, religious services and there are no work opportunities (CEML, par 2). Control unit prisons do not have official policies regarding their restrictions. Furthermore, the punishments inflicted on the prisoners are made in the guise of administrative measures (CEML, par 2). Reading through the article, one cannot help but feel pity for the prisoners of these control unit prisons. One was not aware that there is a proliferation of human rights violation inside the control units. The cruelty and brutality of the physical as well as psychological tortures imposed on the prisoners are beyond one’s imagination. Aside from the abuse that the prisoners suffer from the prison guards, there is no intention of rehabilitation in these control units. What is even more surprising is that many prisons in several states in the US have emulated the inhuman conditions that have prevailed in the Marion prison. According to prison officials, the spread of the control units all over the US is due to three reasons. They claim that the control units contain the most violent prisoners who need to be separated from other prisons (CEML, par 40). They go on further to say that violence is reduced because the most violent person is isolated. Lastly, prison officials argue that security can be minimized at the other prisons because of the reduction of violence brought about by the absence of the worst prisoners (CEML, par 40). As if the government was not satisfied with the ruthlessness in the Marion, it even created a replacement that boasts of tighter control for prisoners. The Florence prison is supposed to possess a â€Å"state of the art technology† with electronic doors, cameras and audio equipment (CEML, par 28). Human contact with prisoners

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Time Management: History and Concepts

Time Management: History and Concepts WARMING UP TO THE CONCEPT OF TIME Now go on and enjoy yourself, dance to your hearts content and win the Princes heart. But remember, you have to be back before the clock strikes twelve at midnight. We all are familiar with the words of the Fairy God Mother in the evergreen fairy tale Cinderella. Its these words that probably made us aware-for the first time in our lives-of the value of time. We all sympathized with Cinderella when all her splendid gown and other finery turned to rags at the stroke of midnight. Our first acquaintance with the villainous Time! But then, is time such a villain, who should always be painted in black? We have heard the proverb that says there are no wounds that time cannot heal. Here of course we get the image of a wizened old woman who comes hobbling up to us with a pitcher full of balm and gentle fingers that soothe away all our pains and sorrows. But thats enough! This project was not made to sing the praises of time. There is no need of the romance of Cinderella or the soothing finger of an old lady when we are talking about time. And do you know why? Its because we do not have the time for it. We are going to try and understand time in its many faces. No, I was not referring to the faces of watches or clocks. I was referring to the many meanings that time has. Oh yes it does! You thought that time meant the same to everyone. Well think again; or maybe you could try to explain the logic behind the following cases. Picture a farmer who plants a sapling of a tree that would probably take ten to twelve years to reach the stage when it would start to bear fruit, by then the farmer would in likelihood be under the soil himself. Picture a jailbird in bird counting on the bars of his cell waiting for the seconds, minutes, and hours, days, weeks, months and years to go by before he can be free again. Now picture a young couple madly in love with each other cherishing the few minutes they get to spend with each other every day, cursing time because it flies so fast when they are together and never the other way round. So what does time mean to you? When was the last time that you realized the value of time? The answer is probably the last time you watched one of those Bollywood thrillers in which the hero is driving a car in which a time-bomb has been planted and the hero is unaware of this. But we being the getting-to-see-it-all audience watch with bated breath as the tiny needle of the timer ticks towards the point at which the explosion is sure to occur. But just before that, the hero hits the brakes screeches to a halt to avoid hitting that old lady crossing the road. And when he jumps out to help her cross the road the needle reaches the point and the bomb is exploded. And our hero is safe. Its funny how the hero always escapes without a scratch in these movies. But I expect thats why they call them heroes. Now we are really transgressing arent we? So back to our subject that is Time Management. Do you know what is interesting about the concept of Time? It is absolutely uncontrollable. Personally I believe that there is something very humbling about this concept. Just imagine a man with all his power is just like a helpless babe before time. There it is Time stands tall and strong before man and man remains vulnerable and weak before it. Man, the big strong man who tamed rivers and seas, who reached out to the skies and beyond, who harnessed wind and water and dug up the bowels of the earth is but a worm before Time. The best he can do to win the battle against time is die is hair and use some anti-wrinkle cream on his face. In fact, the closest that man has got towards conquering time is those many history books that have been penned; they are of course chronicles of events that happened long ago and that is certainly not much to boast about. And so now we come to our subject that is time management because after all the illustrations given above, I hope that I have made one point clear, that is that Time cannot be controlled, it can only be managed. And that is what we are going to do. We are going to learn the art of time management. I dont want you to have an air of helplessness. You might begin to feel that if the battle cannot be won, then what is point in putting up a struggle? Ah, but there you are missing out on a very important point. In all the illustrations that I used above, I was referring to man in general and not to one particular Tom, Dick or Harry. So you can see that this aspect of time is applicable to every human being and there is no running away from it. Every person has only twenty four hours in a day and no force on earth can alter that. So in order to get the cutting edge what you have to do is to be able to manage your time in the most effective way possible. And that is what Time management is all about. Its about managing your time effectively and if I may I would like to add the word efficiently too. Now, when we talk about our resources, everyone knows that we are referring to the resources like fossil fuels, forests, mineral wealth, and water bodies and so on. But surprisingly time is never included in this list. When we talk about non-renewable resources, fossil fuels like coal, petroleum and natural gas top the list. But what about time? A point that most people tend to forget is that time is the most valuable resource that we have, and time once lost, is lost forever. We can think about alternate sources of energy for fossil fuels like electricity, fuel cells, solar energy and the research goes on. But is there any alternative for time that is lost. Again I stress on the point that time once lost, is lost forever. And hence we have the proverb, time and tide waits for no man. HISTORY OF TIME MANAGEMENT The idea of time management has been in existence for more than 100 years. Unfortunately, the term time management creates a false impression of what a person is able to do. Time can neither be managed, nor controlled. We can only manage ourselves and our use of time. History of time management dates back to the 6th century AD with the St. Benedictine Monks who emphasized and encouraged scheduled activities at all times. The concept of time efficiency was introduced by Scottish Economist Adam Smith who developed an assembly line system for factory workers. Benjamin Franklin is considered by many to be the father of modern time management. He mostly emphasized on the effective use of time. Franklin carried around a little black book wherever he went, and within it, he wrote about his thirteen virtues. Each night he would reflect upon the days activities to judge whether he had lived up to these core values. These values were as follows: Temperance Silence Order Resolution Frugality Industry Sincerity Justice Moderation Cleanliness Tranquility Chastity Humility UNDERSTANDING TIME MANAGEMENT We all have time to either spend or waste and it is our decision what to do with it. But once passed, it is gone forever. Bruce Lee (Zen in the Martial Arts by Joe Hyams) Every individual on earth has the same amount of time 60 seconds in a minute; 60 minutes in an hour; 1,440 minutes in a day; and 525,600 minutes in a year. While a vast majority of people confesses faltering to come to grips with it, extremely few can claim to have made the most of it. How is it that they have got it all done? Its because they have managed a way to figure out how to manage their time effectively. Time Management is more than just managing time. It is about controlling the use of the most valuable and undervalued resource. It is managing oneself in relation to time. It is setting priorities and taking charge of the situation and time utilization. It means changing those habits or activities that cause waste of time. It is being willing to adopt habits and methods to make maximum use of time. With good time management skills one is in control of ones time, stress and energy levels. One can maintain balance between ones work and personal life. One finds enough flexibility to respond to surprises or new opportunities. It is not how much time one has, but rather the way one uses it. The bottom line is how well one manages time. Internationally known authority on time management Dr. Alec Mackenzie in his book The Time Trap argues that the very idea of time management is a misnomer because one really cannot manage time in the way other resources can be managed: financial capital, physical capital, human capital, information and time. While each of the first four can be augmented, reduced, transferred or otherwise controlled, Time cannot be manipulated. Dr. Mackenzie contends that when it comes to time, one can only manage oneself in relation to it. One cannot control time as one can control other resources one can only control how one uses it. In the world in which we live, time cannot be replaced or re-created. It is therefore not for us to choose whether we spend or save time but to choose only how we spend it. MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT TIME There are several misconceptions which we all have about time. They affect everyone including those persons who may be considered quite successful and effective. Here are some of the misconceptions identified by Dr. Mackenzie:  · Time management is simple all it requires is common sense. While it is true that the concept is simple, the self-discipline required to practice effective time management is not easy.  · Work is best performed under pressure. Psychological studies show this to be no more than an excuse for procrastination. One does not work well under pressure only does the best one can under the circumstances. Pressure and challenge must not be confused. Laras performance when the West Indies Team is in trouble has more to do with application and determination rather than pressure.  · I use a diary, a to-do list and have a secretary to keep me organized. One has to keep oneself organized no one can do it for others. The trouble with the disorganized person is that he hardly has time to listen to his secretary or look at his diary.  · I do not have the time. The effective worker or manager often gets more work done in the earlier hours of the morning than most laggards get done in the whole day. He then no longer has to work against tight deadlines and under stress which contributes to heart problems and not unusually the ultimate reduction of time on this earth.  · Time management might be good for some kinds of work but my job is creative. Time management is not about routine: it is about self-discipline. Lack of discipline prevents one from being great instead of simply good. Time management takes away the fun and freedom of spontaneity. Is working under stress, forgetting appointments, making constant excuses and apologies to be fun? Would it not be much more fun if by better organization one had one or two more hours every day to spend with the family, to play games, read a good book, plan for tomorrow and the day and week after or just relax? WHY IS TIME MANAGEMENT SO IMPORTANT? Time management is a common problem faced by most of us. Oftentimes, when you are swarmed with multiple tasks at once, it becomes extremely difficult to identify which ones you must complete first. Too often, people eat up what is supposed to be their free time to be able to accomplish all pending tasks in time. It takes a considerate amount of skill in order to manage your time properly. If you are one of these people, you are usually able to control your time efficiently that you can even finish tasks ahead of time. Lets try to analyze the importance of Time Management in different fields. Time Management in School/College: Due to more freedom merited to college students, it can become quite challenging for new (freshman) students to cope with time management. The liberty to choose your own schedule readily creates a false notion that they can do whatever they want. On the other hand, it reflects ones priorities and how you are able to properly appropriate them into your schedule. With lack of proper time management, a student will have trouble coping up with deadlines set by professors. Most students would tend to slack off during vacant hours that they end up accomplishing nothing. If a student has prepared his or her own list of work for the day, he or she will be able to properly allocate the time spent for extracurricular activities and assignments. Time Management at Work: When it comes to your job, proper usage of your time is more particular. This is because you are paid for the hours of service you render to the firm. Hence, companies will try to ensure that each hour you spend at the office is utilized effectively for work. Despite of this, employees still seek out ways to have a break. If time is not properly managed, employees could easily eat up more time for their breaks than what is actually spent on actual work. Hence, the company ends up requiring the employee to do overtime work just to finish a project. If the overtime rendered is reflected on your paycheck, then good for you. But if not, then you reap the unpleasant effects of poor time management. SYMPTOMS OF POOR TIME MANAGEMENT Poor time management shows up by way of one or a combination of typical perceptible symptoms. Managers would do well to look for and reflect on whether they are subject to any of those symptoms with a view to take necessary corrective actions. The following are some of the indicators of poor time management: Constant rushing (e.g. between meetings or tasks) Frequent delays (e.g. in attending meetings, meeting deadlines) Low productivity, energy and motivation (e.g. I cant seem to get worked up about anything) Frustration (e.g. Oh, things just dont move ahead) Impatience (e.g. where the hell is that information Ive asked him for?) Chronic vacillation between alternatives (e.g. whichever option I choose it is going to put me at a big disadvantage. I dont know which way to jump) Difficulty setting and achieving goals (e.g. Im not sure what is expected of me) WHERE DOES ALL THE TIME GO? It is quite surprising when you sit and think about where all the time in one day goes. Twenty four hours is really a lot of time. But on most days it scarcely seems enough. But this is because of certain misconceptions about time. Let us proceed to carefully examine where all that time goes and find out if twenty four hours really is. For that I have listed out certain points which will help you to get a realistic view about how much time you really have in a day. Point 1 We do not really get twenty four hours in a day. Maybe its because we always talk about the twenty four hours in a day, we get the feeling that we really do have twenty four hours to finish our daily business and the fact is that we do not. Assuming that you hit the sack at least by twelve in the night and taking for granted the fact that you need at least seven hours of sleep; let me fix your waking time at seven in the morning. That means that you have already lost seven hours, which we can deduct from twenty four, giving us only seventeen waking hours. Waking hours does not mean the hours you take to wakeup but the hours that you are awake. So let us get that straight, we have only 17 hours in a day. Now if you think that all those seventeen hours can be used for productive work, you are wrong again. For this come to the next point. Point 2 The seventeen waking hours cannot be used completely for productive work. There are many things that a human being should do in order to continue to live like a human being and some of these things do take up a lot of time. Now the following list that I have drawn up is sure to vary from person to person. But I have taken the times for each action on what I felt to e reasonable times as far as any normal human being is concerned. Taking a shower. Most of us take a shower at least once in a day and the time I think we can put down for that is ten minutes. For those of you cleaner ones who shower twice a day put that as twenty minutes. Answering the call of nature Oh yes, we are all very cultured people who have the best of manners and upbringing. We dress ourselves properly and conduct ourselves with the utmost poise. But there are several times in a day when we have to go back to nature and summing up all those things we do in the bath room I think a good half hour should be enough. Getting ready and tidying ourselves When we move about in society definitely we have to look our best and adding up all the minutes that we spend in front of that mirror, we get another ten minutes. For some people of course, this figure comes up to half an hour. But I think ten minutes is good enough. Eating We need to eat to live and though I accept the fact that people have different eating habits and times, I think that and Im sure doctors will agree with me that a person needs three meals a day and should take at least ten minutes to ingest a meal and not just gobble it down. So that makes it 30 minutes for food. Time to relax Please do not raise an argument now. I promise to deal with this bit later on. But right now I would like to put down one hour as the time to relax, and this includes the time that you get to yourself for prayer or meditation or just to stare out of your window or perhaps the few extra minutes that you spend in your bed after waking up, waiting for the last traces of sleep to go away. Time with family and friends Please we are human beings, arent we? And we certainly cannot get along with our business of life without chatting a few minutes every now and then with our friends and the family too. So with your permission, I would like to deduct another hour from your waking time. So now what do we have left? We started off with 17 hours of waking time. And we proceed to add up all the time that we accounted for in the above mentioned points; let us see how much time we have left for productive work provided we still want to exist as human beings. The activities mentioned above would take when put together a good three hours and twenty minutes. That is 3 hours and 20 minutes. I put it down in both numerals and words so that you can get a real taste of the figure. Now if we proceed to subtract this figure from our 17 hours of waking time, what do we get? We are left with just thirteen hours forty minutes. In figures that is 13 hours 40 minutes. And that is a fact. That is all that we get. So from now on dont you think that it would be more realistic to say that we have just thirteen hours and forty minutes to accomplish a days work and not twenty-four hours. For if we continue to believe that we have twenty four hours, and then we are in effect deceiving ourselves. But wait there is more to this story than meets the eye. These crucial hours that we have painstakingly added up are not really put to constructive use. There are certain things called time waster which you have to look out for and that is what we are going to deal w ithin our next chapter. Time Killers Till now, we have been harping about how valuable time is and how time lost is time lost forever and so on. But now we come to a strange concept and that is Time Killers. The very word sound like sacrilege doesnt it? How can one talk about killing such a valuable resource. But thats the way the story goes. Thee are a lot of time killers in this world and what you have to do is that you have to identify these time killers, look out for them and stay wary of tem. Only then can you put your available time to the maximum possible use. The time killers that I have listed below are more or less general. They are things that most of us encounter. But apart from these, each one of us may have unique time killers that are particular to our style of living and way of work. Be smart and identify these killers. When I talk about killers, do not get the impression of masked men lurking in shadows brandishing guns and knives. The killers that I am referring to are quite ordinary every day things that we see and use in our lives but often do not realize how much of our time they take away. Seven terrible Time Killers Telephone calls Chatter boxes Traffic jams Finding parking spaces Meetings Bad machinery Long queues The list could of course go on. But before we keep adding to the list, I would like to elaborate on certain of the items listed above. How to handle Time Killers †¢ The funny thing about telephone calls is that these instruments are indeed great time savers. In fact the amount of time that people get to save thanks to telephones is stupendous. The problem arises when telephones are not used properly. Most people do not understand and even if they do they forget that telephones are not to be used for lengthy conversations. For one thing, another person may be trying to reach you and there is nothing as exasperating as trying to reach a person over the telephone and being confronted with a busy tone. So the first thing about a telephone conversation is that it should be brief. Another thing about telephones is that most people do not know how to use a telephone properly. In stead of immediately identifying themselves and asking directly for the person they want, some people go on playing a lot of who is speaking games once they make a call or answer the telephone. Now coming to mobile phones there is a lot to be said and done. What should be done is turn off your cell phone when you are having a conversation or a discussion with more than one person. As soon as you get a call, you may ask the people you were talking to excuse yourself but you leave them waiting while you chuckle and giggle over your phone. Often we tend to give ore importance to the caller than to the person we were having the discussion with. Again the same rule applies here. Be brief. A mobile phone is to be used to get an important message across to a person who you were not able to reach on the land line. * The next point is about those chatter boxes. Havent we all met them? They simply love the sound of their own voices and once they open their mouths, there is no stopping them. They waste not only your time but their time as well. Steer clear of such people. Believe me, it is much easier to avoid such people than to tell them to shut up and if you get a telephone call from such a person, use a caller ID facility or ask your secretary to divert the call.  · Traffic jams and finding parking spaces. Any one who has lived in the city for at least a day will know what I am talking about. There is no getting past a traffic jam at the rush hour. And will someone tell me whit is called the rush hour when that is the time when the traffic is the slowest. The only thing you can do is anticipate the traffic jam and leave your home a half hour or one hour early. But that does not really keep the time killer at bay. It just helps you to avoid being late. In this respect you have two options. Either you could find something constructive to do while you wait for the traffic to move along or the traffic light to change or a better option would be to take subway and walk the rest of the way. You can get a long a lot faster on your feet and it is a lot better for your health as well. By doing so, you can also get rid of the headache of finding a parking space.  · Not surprisingly lengthy meetings and discussions can prove to be awful time killers particularly if the meeting does not have a clear agenda and if there are people who love top talk among the group. It has been found that most middle and senior level mangers spend nearly 70% of their work time talking. And in most organizations, parleying has been made into a fine art. * Bad machinery is a time waster. How many of us have wanted to sit and scream and bang the daylights out of a pc that does not give us the required data or information. A computer that takes a long time to start up, a photocopier that gives shamefully faint photocopies, even a leaky faucet or a stubborn drawer or door knob can waste a lot of time and send us up the wall. If you have such equipment or machinery, get it changed at the earliest possible date. It is worth the amount of time and energy that you waste on it every day. * Long queues certainly waste a lot of time. That does not mean that you have to jump the queue. If you can get the job done over the telephone or can reserve your ticket in advance, do it, even if it means a few extra dollars, it is worth the time you may have to spend waiting. Apart from these each person may have particular time wasters, like for instance, a car that refuses to start in the morning, difficult hair that insists on looking like Medusas head on a bad snake day, an elevator that takes forever to reach your floor. Use your common sense and try to find alternate methods or even better, if you cannot find an alternate method, you could put the time to some use like read your morning paper in the elevator. You will get a better idea of how to get over time killers once we handle the section called the time savers. Lining Up Your Ducks: Prioritize! Lining up your ducks is a familiar and charming phrase. It derives from the tendency of baby ducklings to swim in a perfectly straight line behind their mother. If the ducklings begin to stray too far, the mother duck will invariably shepherd them back into line—thus, getting her ducks in a row. The application of this phrase to time management is clear. If you deal with things in a logical, orderly sequence, youre sure to bring efficiency and results to your efforts. When your ducks begin to stray too far afield, danger is lurking—for them and for you. Lets face it. 24 hours in a day is not enough time for many people to do everything in their schedule. It is therefore imperative that people perform their activities in the order of priority. Time management experts like Stephen Covey S R (The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People; Simon Schuster) have developed a model called a time management matrix. This model enables managers to prioritize their activities and use their time more effectively. With the help of the model, they can evaluate their activities in terms of importance and urgency. The art of prioritizing covers 4 major task groups: Important and Urgent Not Important but Urgent Not Urgent but Important Not Important and Not Urgent TIME MANAGEMENT MATRIX Important and Urgent Quadrant 1 represents things which are both urgent and important labeled firefighting. The activities need to be dealt with immediately, and they are important. These tasks are the ones that must be done right away, or consequences may result. An example would be bills that are due today. If you dont pay your bills on time, you would incur additional charges or they might cut off their services to you. Activities belonging to this category need to be acted upon without delay. You should give them the highest priority. Important but Not Urgent Quadrant 2 represents things which are important, but not urgent labelled Quality Time. Although the activities here are important, and contribute to achieving the goals and priorities they do not have to be done right now. As a result, they can be scheduled when they can be given quality thought to them. A good example would be the preparation of an important talk, or mentoring a key individual. Prayer time, family time and personal relaxation/recreation are also part of Quadrant 2. Urgent but Not Important Quadrant 3 represents distractions. They must be dealt with right now, but frankly, are not important. For example, when a person answers an unwanted phone call, he/she has had to interrupt whatever he/she is doing to answer it. Not Important and Not Urgent Quadrant 4 represents Time Wasting. You might think activities in this section are not worth peoples time, so they wont engage in these activities much. You would be surprised to know that people spend most of their time doing things that are both unimportant and non-urgent, such as watching TV and movies, playing video games, senseless chatting for hours on the phone, shopping for new clothes, etc. Of course, it is essential for people to relax and unwind once in a while. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy, as they say. But you should be strict in limiting your time for these activities; that is, if you really want to accomplish a lot in your life. Treat activities belonging to this section with the lowest priority. If you really want to succeed, strictly limit your time in doing these activities or dont do them at all. Focus on those that will bring you fruitful results. Numbered Priority Tactic Heres one of the most powerful techniques that you can use to manage your time efficiently the Numbered Priority Tactic. Buy a very small notebook that you can put in your pocket. You should be able to bring it anywhere you go. At the front page of the notebook, put the title: Important and Urgent. At the back page, put the title: Important but Not Urgent. If an idea or event you encounter is Urgent but Not Important, then forget it. You want to utilize your time well, wont you? If you think its significant in some way, then you may put it under Important and Urgent. Ignore Not Important and Not Urgent tasks. Every time something comes up during your daily work or on your mind, put it in the appropriate page of your little notebook. So lets say your boss told you to submit a report due tomorrow. Write it down on your notebook under Important and Urgent. Then your friend told you that theres a big 2-day sale at the downtown furniture store. You may put it under Important and Urgent if you simply must have that furniture youre drooling for months. But if you think your house would do fine without it, then dont write it anymore. As youre walking down the street you suddenly thought of a great new idea for your part-time business. You may put it under Important but Not Urgent. As the day goes on, write down each and every idea, thought, or event that comes to your mind. As the list increases in each category, examine each of them carefully and start numbering each item in the order of priority with 1 being the highest priority. Start working on Number 1, and never go to Number 2 until youre done with Number 1 for each category. If distractions come about, you may take care of them first but always come back to your numbered list when youre done. Because priorities may change, you may switch or change the numbers of the items in the list. You may also transfer one item from Important and Urgent to Important but Not Urgent, and vice-versa. When you do any changes, make sure your notebook stays clean. Transfer your writings to a new page when you see that its getting untidy. Start off with a new page every day. This method can enable you to achieve more in one week than what most people can accomplish in a month. The important thing you must do is to buy that little notebook and to start doing this super tactic right now! Time is running fast. < Development of Rat Cranial Blood Vessels: Ethanol Development of Rat Cranial Blood Vessels: Ethanol Gadgieva Aminat Usmanovna Morphological changes of cranial venae cavae of rats in the early postnatal ontogenesis under the influence of ethanol Abstract Background: Morphology of major arterial and venous lines at different ages, and especially their changes under the experimental exposure gives a deeper understanding of problems in the structure of blood vessels in normal and pathological conditions. Aim: To study the changes of intrapericardial cranial venae cavae of rats in postnatal development under the influence of ethanol. Methods and materials: Investigated intrapericardial part of the right (RCVC) and left (LCVC) cranial venae cavae in 120 rats 6, 11, 16, and 22 to 30 days of ages. 60 of them received ethanol with mothers milk. For this females were daily intragastrically administered 40  ° ethanol in a dose of 8 ml / kg during the lactation period (22 days). The control group consisted of 60 rats of the same age, females mothers who daily intragastrically received distilled water in the same dose. Results: It is established that under the influence of ethanol decreases the thickness of the wall of the cranial vena cava. Thickening of the collagen and elastic fibers, reticular fibers and destruction of myocytes observed. Conclusion: To study the changes of intrapericardial cranial venae cavae of rats in postnatal development under the influence of ethanol. Keywords: postnatal ontogenesis; cranial venae cavae, ethanol. Introduction Morphology of major arterial and venous lines at different ages, and especially their changes under the experimental exposure gives a deeper understanding of problems in the structure of blood vessels in normal and pathological conditions. Distortion of the structure of veins often leads to chronic venous insufficiency, varicose disease and thrombosis [1]. Effect of ethanol is primarily manifested in violation structures of the blood vessels and the heart [2, 3]. Ethanol has the ability to penetrate into the mammary gland and flow in milk [4]. In the available literature, we found no data on the effect of alcohol on the state and development of the vena cava in postnatal ontogenesis. The purpose of the study. To study the changes of intrapericardial cranial venae cavae of rats in postnatal development under the influence of ethanol. Materials and methods. Investigated intrapericardial part of the right (RCVC) and left (LCVC) cranial venae cavae in 120 rats 6, 11, 16, and 22 to 30 days of ages. 60 of them received ethanol with mothers milk. For this females were daily intragastrically administered 40  ° ethanol in a dose of 8 ml / kg during the lactation period (22 days). The control group consisted of 60 rats of the same age, females mothers who daily intragastrically received distilled water in the same dose. The animals were kept under standard vivarium conditions at t 21-22  ° C and a natural photoperiod, on a normal diet. Slaughtering rats was conducted in accordance with the Rules of work with experimental animals, adopted by the Committee on Bioethics of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Slaughtering rats was performed under ether anesthesia. After opening the thoracic and abdominal cavities material was fixed in 12% neutral formalin. Then vena cava was isolated and carried on the battery alcohols increasing concentrations, embedded in paraffin. Prepared histological specimens longitudinal and transverse sections of intrapericardial (orifice and non-orifice part the area between the mouth and the attachment of the pericardium to the wall of the vein) part of the RCVC and LCVC. Applied paint sections with hematoxylin and eosin, Van Gieson, Weigert methods, and impregnation method Foote under the modification N.A. Yurin. Using ocular line with magnification ob.90, ok.7.measured the thickness of the wall of the cranial venae cavae in the orifice and out parts. Mathematical processing of data was performed using the application Microsoft Excel 2010 in the section descriptive statistics. The data obtained were processed statistically by standard methods for sampling with the definition of the mean (M), error of the arithmetic mean (m), quadratic deviation (ÏÆ'), Students t test (t). Differences were considered significant at p≠¤ 0.05. Results In 6-day-old rats treated with ethanol through mothers milk from the first day of birth, in the wall of the orifice of RCVC and LCVC subendothelial layer contains dense bundles of elastic fibers compared with the control. In the outer layer, elastic fibers in experimental rats are presented in separate fragments, or missing. In control rats the elastic fibers in the outer layer of the same area are absent. In non-orifice part of the RCVC and LCVC elastic fibers, located in the subendothelial layer, also have a greater density than the control. Reticular fibers form large incomplete loops. At 11 days of age are most exposed to the effects of ethanol endothelial layer of the orifice part of the RCVC and LCVC. Endothelial cells contain pyknotic nuclei, which are located far from each other. At this age, the collagen and elastic fibers have a higher density than the control. Reticular fibers in experimental animals are placed chaotically in some places where they are totally absent. At 11 days of age, the walls of RCVC and LCVC non-orifice area in rats, received ethanol with milk, elastic fibers also thicker than in the controls. Given area in experimental rats in the wall of both cranial veins found zones devoid of reticular fibers. On day 16 of the experiment in comparison with the control, in the orifice part of RCVC and LCVC elastic and reticular fibers have different thickness and density of the location. In some places, elastic and reticular fibers are thick, in others not. Collagen fibers are notably thickened and form dense tufts. In the mid layer non orifice part of the RCVC and LCVC, nuclei in myocytesare less than in controls. Collagen fibers of the RCVC under the influence of ethanol become much thicker than in controls. There is no significant change in the collagen fibers of LCVC at given age. Reticular fibers of the middle layer in many places are absent, and in those places where they are, have the form of non-closed loop. In 22-day-old rats exposed to ethanol, in the middle layer orifice part of the vein increase the area of non-nuclear sites in comparison with the 16-day-animals of given group. Elastic fibers become loose in some parts of the veins, in the other, on the contrary form dense tufts. In experimental rats, endothelial cells nuclei of the non-orifice part of the cranial venae cavae have elongated shapes, in some places desquamation of cells is observed. In th e middle layer, the area of non-nuclear sites increases. Elastic fibers in the subendothelial layer are thinner than in the control group. In the middle and outer layers, the elastic fibers are arranged as separate fragments. Reticular fibers of the RCVC and LCVC do not form loops and are scattered. By 30-th day of the experiment the orifice part of the RCVC and LCVC is mainly covered by connective tissue. The outer layer is thicker than in the controls. Collagen fibers are densely forming the thick bundles, they occupy a large area of wall thickness. Elastic fibers between the subendothelial layer, and muscular tunic and at the boundary of the outer and middle layers loosened. On the 30th day in the non-orifice part, collagen fibers are thicker than in the orifice part, especially in RCVC. In carrying out morphometric studies revealed that the wall thickness of both paired cranial venae cavae in the orifice part is smaller than in controls. Differences were significant in RCVC and LCVC 11, 16, 22 and 30 days after birth (Table 1). Increase in wall thickness of the orifice part RCVC and LCVC in 11-day-old rats compared with 6-day amounted to 10% and 8.3%. By 16 days of age, the thickness of the orifice RCVC and LCVC compared with the previous period increased by 24.9% and 16.1%. Increase in wall thickness of the RCVC and LCVC in the orifice part in 22 days rats decreased to 11.3% and 10% by day 30 it occurs differently in RCVC (17.8%) and LCVC (3.2%). Table 1 Wall thickness of the orifice part of RCVC and LCVC in experiment and control (micron), n = 50 * à Ã‚   In non-orifice area of 11-day-old rats in the experimental group, increase wall thickness of RCVC and LCVC as compared with 6 -day-old rats is slight 7.2% and 5.1%. Wall thickness of 16-day-old experimental rats increased as compared with 11-day in RCVC to 21.6%, in LCVC to 17.1%.In 22-day-old rats increase of the wall thickness of RCVC is above and is 31.1%, whereas LCVC is 2.1%.The most substantial growth in thickness of the RCVC observed on day 30 of the experiment (56,3%), while of the LCVC, it was 19.3%. Consequently, the greatest increase in the thickness of the orifice part of RCVC and LCVC in experimental rats observed at 16 days of age. In non-orifice area under the influence of ethanol, a strong increase in wall thickness of the RCVC begins 16 days after birth, but it becomes a maximum on day 30, after the cessation of ethanol poisoning females. In LCVC growth occurs in waves, minimum on 11-and 22-days and increased on 16 and 30-days. The wall thickness of both pair cranial venae cavae in non-orifice part in experimental rats on 6, 11, 16 and 22 days is less, and on day 30, it becomes larger than in control. Certain differences in RCVC and LCVC on 11, 16, 22 and day 30(Table 2). Table 2 Wall thickness of the RCVC and LCVC in non-orifice area in experiment and control (micron), n = 50 * à Ã‚   The study showed that in the context of alcohol intoxication, observed a breach of postnatal histogenesis of the intrapericardiac part of cranial venae cavae. Entering of ethanol for 6 days causes thickening of elastic fibers and decreasing reticular fibers in the non-orifice area. Prolonged alcohol intoxication leads to further destruction of reticular fibers and myocytes, degenerative changes of endothelial cells are occurred. Deformation of the vascular wall integrity, including tunica adventitia, found in alcoholic human disease in brain vessels. In the intima, also observed endothelial desquamation, loosening of muscular layer and adventitia [5]. 22 days after birth in experimental rats to marked changes in the wall of the cranial venae cavae joins thickening of collagen fibers. After the cessation of receipt of ethanol through mothers milk (from 22 to 30 days) elastic and reticular fibers do not restore their structures, their loosening or formation of thick beams happens. There is a substantial thickening of the collagen fibers, which is a manifestation of multiple sclerosis of the vein wall. Destruction of elastic and reticular fibers of the vessels and the soft core of the spleen, the reduction of cell elements (smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and fibrocytes) and connective tissue stromacollagenization reflect the aging process [6]. Wall thickness of the RCVC and LCVC in intrapericardial part throughout the experiment was significantly less, except RCVC on the 30th day in non-orifice area. In rats with alcohol intoxication disturbed growth rate of RCVC and LCVC. Previously we have determined that the wall thickness of RCVC a day after birth is 16,3  ± 0,44 micrometers and LCVC is 17,8  ± 0,42 micrometers. Substantial growth of wall thickness in the orifice part of RCVC occurs on 16-30 days, and LCVC already on 6 and 11 days after birth, in non-orifice area of RCVC from 16 to 30 days, LCVC from 11 to 30 days. In the first 6 days under the influence of ethanol there is no increase in the thickness of the orifice part of RCVC and LCVC in 6-day-old rats in the experimental group compared with 1-day-old control group [7]. At a later date , increase the thickness of the orifice part of RCVC observed only on day 16,then the growth rate goes down, and in LCVC it occurs later than in the control, and also on 16th day. Increase in thickness of the non-orifice area of RCVC under the influence of ethanol does not significantly differ from control, while LCVC significantly less in all periods of the study. Morphometric parameters of vessels reflect their functional features. Pronounced morphometric changes indicative of impaired hemodynamic, had a vein of the liver lobules in 3 days after shin injury [8]. Thus, the effect of ethanol at the early stages of postnatal ontogenesis leads to pathological changes, which are expressed in endothelial desquamation, destruction of reticular, elastic fibers, myocytes and collagenization of connective tissue stroma. These changes occur with violation of histogenesis of the cranial vena cava wall that appears in the orifice and non-orifice areas of the intrapericardiac part. From both cranial venae cavae, the largest histogenesisviolation occurs in the LCVC. References Shvalb P.G. , Ukhov Y.I., Tsaregorodcev A.A. Nature of the changes of the venous wall, depending on the cause of recurrent varicose veins. // Flebologiya. 2009. à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾-4. p. 26-31. Porsukov E.A. On the morphological diagnosis of alcoholic heart lesion // Forensic Medicine. 2009. à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾-6. P.21-24. Steinweg D.L., Worth H. Alcoholism: the keys to the CAGE // Medicine.-1993.-Vol.94.-No.5.-P.520-523. Berejnoy R.V.,Smusin Y.S.,Tomilin V.V., ShirinskyP.P. Guidelines for forensic medicine poisoning. Moscow, M.1980, p.227. Krachun G.P., Pishenko E.E., Razygraeva N.L., Petrovina I.A., Kushnir P.X.Functional Histomorphology of intertissue changes in the wall of brain vessels, with alcoholism. // Xist, Chernov, issue 15. 2013, p.270. Alphonsova E.B., Functional morphology of connective tissue stroma of the spleen in the age aspect. // Achievements in Gerontology. Ed. Aesculapius (St. Petersburg). 2012-T 25, à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾-3.- S. 415-421. Hadjiyeva A.U., Blinova S.A., Development of intrapericardial part of the cranial vena cava of rats in postnatal ontogenesis //Morphology.-2014, V.8, à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾-1. P.26-29. Ocheretina R.Y., Mkrtchan O.Z., Strogov M.B., Morphometric parameters of vessels of the liver lobules in mice during the recovery period after shin injury.

Friday, January 17, 2020

Effect of racism from a functionalist’s point of view Essay

One of the most identifiable effects of racial discrimination in education and training is the negative impact it has on the performance of children at school. The failure to address the needs of minority children and those of migrant workers through, for example, combating racial stereotyping or through formulating school curricula that include modules on minority languages and cultures, can lead to school curricula which lack relevance for those children. As a result, children may lose interest and become bored at school which in turn increases the risk that children will drop out early or even fail to attend school at all. The failure to provide curricula adapted to the specific needs of the children of minorities and migrant workers can also lead to low literacy rates amongst these groups. Similarly, where a child does not have an adequate grasp of the official language, the failure to provide additional language classes in the official language and to provide classes in minority or migrant languages could have the effect of retarding the progress of those children through school. Another long-term effect of racial discrimination is that children learn to accept acts of racial discrimination as the norm. Such learnt behaviour can lead to the consolidation of racial discrimination within society as the norm, with children of minorities or migrants growing up and discriminating against the newest influx of migrants. Thus, a vicious cycle of discriminatory behaviour is produced which reinforces racially discriminatory behaviour. The forced segregation of children of minorities and migrant workers from other children can have serious negative effects on the capacity of these children to integrate with other children and into the society in general. In particular, segregation of children into schools for mentally handicapped children can severely retard the child’s progress through school and can affect his or her self-image. Education is arguably the basis of a functionalist’s beliefs, where children learn social skills and behaviours, these skills help build towards unity in society. Therefore racism is abhored in their beliefs.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Development of Advanced Practice Nursing the Role of...

The Development of Advanced Practice Nursing: The Role of Health Care Reform Lauren Minimo Azusa Pacific University The Development of Advanced Practice Nursing: The Role of Health Care Reform The purpose of this paper is to describe the role of health care reform with regards to the evolution and development of advanced practice nursing (APN) in the United States. Foundational aspects prominent in the development of defined APN roles include the health needs in society, support for innovation in health care, governmental health policy and regulation, health workforce supply and demand, and the development of advanced education, among other factors (Ketefian et al., 2001). APNs are comprised of nurse anesthetists, nurse midwives,†¦show more content†¦A nationwide shortage of physicians in the mid-1960s gave way to the development of the nation’s first master’s degree curriculum in Nurse Practitioner at the University of Colorado’s School of Nursing in 1965 (Egenes amp; Burgess, 2001). The nurse practitioner movement was greatly influenced by the social movements of the 1960s and 70s, including the women’s and civil rights movements. By the 1970s, nurse practitioner preparation increased in graduate programs nationwide and the provision of primary care by nurse practitioners became widely accepted. Women of various racial and ethnic groups were finally allowed entry into nursing education programs after the Nurse Training Acts of 1975 and 1980. The physician shortages of the 1970s became a surplus in the 1980s, and Nurse Practitioners and APNs felt the need to increase scientific rigor to establish their continued value as PCPs (Frellick, 2011). In 1993, The American College of Nurse Practitioners was formed to further lobby and advocate for the needs of Nurse Practitioners (Egenes amp; Burgess, 2001). The advancement of APN has been previously linked to health care reform in the United States (Aiken et al., 2009). 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